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Virology is a stream of science that mostly focuses on aspects such as their immunity, the ability to abolish or infect the host cells, their evolution, arrangement, structure, alignment, several ways of infecting, different methods of culturing them, their use in laboratory, various methods to isolate them and their physiology. Viruses also cause serious diseases in plants and livestock. Viruses have been implicated in a disease that is ravaging our honeybees, threatening natural pollination cycles and thus much of agriculture.  A major branch of virology is virus classification. Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages. Viruses cause many important infectious diseases, among them the common cold, influenza, rabies, measles, many forms of diarrhoea, hepatitis, Dengue fever, yellow fever, polio, smallpox and AIDS. The study of the manner in which viruses cause disease is viral pathogenesis.

Rare diseases are a many heterogeneous group of diseases with a little in like manner aside from of their irregularity affecting with influencing the individuals. It is a health condition of low prevalence that affects a very less number of people compared with other diseases in the general population.  Most of these diseases are caused by genital variations and hereditary inceptions. There are more than 7000 rare diseases. Most rare diseases are genetic, and are present throughout a person's full life, even if symptoms do not directly appear. In Europe a disease or disorder is defined as rare when it affects less than 1 in 2000 citizens.

Rare diseases are considered by a wide diversity of symptoms and signs that vary not only from disease to disease but also from patient to patient suffering from the same disease.

Single gene mutations

Cystic fibrosis

Muscular dystrophies

Huntington disease

PI deficiency

Fields Condition

Kuru

Methemoglobinemia

Hutchinson-Gilford proger

Viral oncology is a section of oncology concerned with the treatment of tumors with viral particles. A large number of the world’s population harbors at least one of these oncoviruses, but only a small proportion of these individuals go on to develop cancer. 

The viruses known to cause human cancers are:

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) - Burkitt's Lymphoma

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) - Liver Cancer

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) - Liver Cancer

Human Herpesvirus 8 (HH8) - Kaposi's Sarcoma

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) - Cervical Cancer, Head and Neck Cancers, Anal, Oral, Pharyngeal, and Penile Cancers

Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV) - Adult T-cell Leukemia

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus - Skin Cancer (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus - Skin Cancer (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

Structural Virology is the molecular mechanisum used by viruses to invade host cells start an infection and ensure that progeny virus particles are released into the environment, all while evading the host's immune defenes.

Size and morphology

Capsid

Envelope

Complex

Nucleic acid

Pathogenesis is the procedure by which an infection leads to disease. Pathogenic mechanisms of viral disease contain implantation of virus at the portal of entry, local replication, spread to target organs and spread to sites of shedding of virus into the environment. Factors that affect pathogenic mechanisms

Accessibility of virus to tissue

Cell susceptibility to virus multiplication

Virus susceptibility to host defenses

Orphan drugs are considered to be medicinal products future for the diagnosis, prevention or the treatment of rare diseases. Authorisation of all drugs in rare diseases disorders must be based on effectiveness of substantial evidence of effectiveness in preventing the condition with the evidence of safety for the treatment use. Over the last decade of 30 years, more than 400 medicines representing 447 separate medicinal indications have been approved to treat disorders and diseases symptoms rare diseases, compared to lesser than 10 in the 1970s.

Examination and dealing of a rare disease become complicated because of the fact that many health care providers may have controlled involvement with the identification of the particular disease condition with the diagnosis of rare diseases. Analysis before diagnosis early stage in the disease can be challenging. Specialists in the field have utilized new advances and the developing exploratory comprehension of multiple rare diseases to develop and diagnose ground breaking therapies over the last 10 years. Previously more than 230 new orphan medical drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 2015 alone, about half (47%) of novel recent drug approvals were for rare diseases. Disease specific therapies need to be developed for productive results in treatment of Rare Diseases.

Comprehensive public-private partnerships, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and rare diseases community, which is sighted a renewed industry interest in markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. There are now involving 4,770 progressing research projects, barring clinical trials, covers numerous diseases and research on this area requires  multidisciplinary approach in order to determine innovative treatments for the initial diagnosis and treatment procedures.  Requirements of the pediatric populace with rare diseases autonomously organizing from that of grown-ups. Since about 50 to 75% of the rare diseases begin in childhood, these pediatric disorders deserve special importance. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness.

Animal virus genomes consist of either RNA or DNA, which may be single-stranded or double-stranded. Animal viruses may use a range of strategies to copy and use their genetic material. The virology section studies research focusing on the clinical, macro-pathological, cell and molecular biological aspects of viruses of veterinary importance. This includes studies on livestock, companion animals, equids, wild animals, fish, laboratory animals and animal models of human infections. Studies on related zoonotic and emerging viral infections are also considered. At least one major disease of each domestic animal species except sheep is caused by a herpesvirus, including such important diseases as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and Marek's disease. However, there are several approaches to their prevention, control, and eradication. The most generally useful control measure is the use of vaccines.

Viral immunology is simply the study of immune responses to viruses. A prolonged tissue-damaging effect resulting from an immune reaction against viruses is considered immunopathology. Such situations most commonly involve persistent viruses, which are themselves often mildly cytodestructive in the absence of an immune reaction. Chronic tissue damage initiated by viruses can also result in development of an autoreactive and an occasionally oncogenic response.

Immunology of Human Virus Infections

DNA and RNA viral infections

Viral infections commonly affect the upper or lower respiratory tract. There are many different types of viruses that can affect the breathing passages and cause respiratory illnesses such as a cold or flu-like illness. Some of the common respiratory viruses include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus and enterovirus. Influenza virus infection and respiratory syncytial virus infection are not included here as they are covered elsewhere. Treatment of viral respiratory infections is usually supportive.

. Supportive

. Sometimes antiviral drugs

Viruses are intracellular pathogens that have evolved many devious strategies to evade host immune responses and, as a consequence, have plagued human health throughout history. Combating viral diseases with vaccines or antiviral drugs, or both, is a constant challenge. Even when successful strategies are discovered and employed, the high rate of genetic change exhibited by many viruses, particularly RNA viruses, often enables drug resistance or vaccine escape. This is compounded by the periodic emergence of new viral pathogens.

Development of Antivirals

. Target identification & screening of Antivirals

Infections caused by viruses are general during childhood and adolescence. Clinicians will regularly care for children and adolescents who present with infections caused by a wide number of viral pathogens. These infections have varied presentations. Many infections may have clinical presentations that are specific to the infecting virus but present differently, based on the age and immunocompetence of the patient. Some children are directly impacted early in their lives when maternal disease results in an in utero infection (cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, or parvovirus B19). Other viruses may infect children in a predictable pattern as they grow older (rhinovirus or influenza virus).

Measles

Chickenpox

Roseola

The field of rare diseases is difficult and heterogeneous and suffers from a deficit of scientific and medical knowledge .The landscape of rare disease is constant evolving the new rare diseases and conditions being reported and identified regularly in medical literature. Apart from a few rare diseases where significant progress has been made, still the field is nascent stage. For a long time, doctors, researchers and policy makers were unaware of rare diseases and until very recently no real research or public health policy concerning issues related to the field .This posses challenges in development of comprehended policy on rare diseases. Nevertheless, it is important to take step, in the short as well as long term, with the objective of talking rare diseases in a comprehensive and holistic manner.

Awareness of rare diseases

Public health care

Challenges in public health

Cystic fibrosis

Process of gene therapy

Awareness of rare diseases

Economic difficulties related to the prevention, analysis and treatment of Rare Diseases and production of Orphan Drugs are presented compensating particular attention to the costs of financing treatment, including the issue of its repayment, which is an important and difficult to solve economic problem of the health care system. Cumulative pressures on health care financial plan have led to a rising attention in the use of economic evaluation in reimbursement decisions for Orphan Drugs and other health technologies.

To describe the clinical outcome of health care workers who took care of a patient with severe pneumonia before the diagnosis of COVID-19 was known.

The Novel Coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (COVID-19). In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild (common cold) to lethal (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19) and recover without requiring special treatment and in birds and mammals also cause various diseases. People with medical problems like diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer and also in elder are more likely to develop serious illness. At present, no specific treatment is there for disease caused by a novel coronavirus.

Dealing with the unforeseen challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on people all across the world. Medical News Today has spoken with people from different countries, asking how the pandemic has impacted their lives.

The majority of clinical trials involving Covid-19 vaccines or treatments are showing “encouraging” results. The four multinational clinical trials that are planning to enrol the most subjects are investigating remdesivir, sarilumab and bevacizumab. One of the drugs that recently had positive clinical trials results is remdesivir.